Heat Pumps 978-83-65596-73-4

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DOI: 10.24427/978-83-65596-73-4_5 5. HEAT PUMPS 5.1. Introduction Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth that can be recovered and exploited by man. Natural geothermal energy examples are hot springs, volcanoes and other thermal sources. Research showed that the Earth’s temperature was increasing with depth, under a gradient of 2-3°C/100m. The total heat flux from the Earth’s interior amounts to ca 80 (mW/m2). It is a great resource, non-polluting, almost infinite source of clean and renewable energy. The heat originates from the Earth’s core temperature (4,000°C at the depth of 4,000 km). The total heat amount of the Earth is about 12.6 x 1024 MJ, and the total world energy demand is 6x1013 MJ. However, only a part of it can be used at present. Utilization of this energy has been limited to areas in which geological conditions allow (Kreider et al., 2010). Temperature (C°) 4000°C 5000°C Depth (km) 2.000 km 4.000 km 6.000 km Fig. 5.1. The temperature inside the Earth (Source: own elaboration) There are three common methods of heat generation. The first is radioactive decay reaction, i.e. the heat from the process reaches the Earth’s surface. The second is the transmission of thermal energy from the depth of the Earth, transporting it through several layers to reach the surface. There are several areas where direct channels bring molten rock and steam to the surface. These direct channels are known as 145

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CO2 Organic Rankine Cycle Experimenter Platform The supercritical CO2 phase change system is both a heat pump and organic rankine cycle which can be used for those purposes and as a supercritical extractor for advanced subcritical and supercritical extraction technology. Uses include producing nanoparticles, precious metal CO2 extraction, lithium battery recycling, and other applications... More Info

Heat Pumps CO2 ORC Heat Pump System Platform More Info

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