Optimization of a transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle

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Abstract International Journal of Refrigeration 27 (2004) 830–838 Optimization of a transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle for simultaneous cooling and heating applications J. Sarkar, Souvik Bhattacharyya*, M. Ram Gopal Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, India Received 2 May 2003; received in revised form 2 February 2004; accepted 9 March 2004 Energetic and exergetic analyses as well as optimization studies of a transcritical carbon dioxide heat pump system are presented in this article. A computer code has been developed to obtain sub-critical and super-critical thermodynamic and transport properties of carbon dioxide. Estimates for irreversibilities of individual components of the system lead to possible measures for performance improvement. The COP trends indicate that such a system is more suitable for high heating end temperatures and modest cold end temperatures. Expressions for optimum cycle parameters have been developed and these correlations offer useful guidelines for optimal system design and for selecting appropriate operating conditions. q 2004 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved. Keywords: Optimization; Heat pump; Carbon dioxide; Thermodynamic cycle; High pressure; Modelling; Thermodynamic property Optimisation du cycle transcritique d’une pompe a` chaleur au dioxyde de carbone utilise ́e dans les applications de refroidissement et de chauffage simultane ́s www.elsevier.com/locate/ijrefrig Mots-cle ́ s: Optimisation; thermodynamic 1. Introduction Pompe a ́ chaleur; Dioxyde de carbone; Cycle thermodynamic; Haute pression; Mode ́ lisation; Proprie ́ te ́ carbon dioxide based systems mainly due to the low critical temperature of CO2. As a result and also with the invention of halocarbon refrigerants, carbon dioxide was slowly phased out of refrigeration and air conditioning appli- cations. However, with the discovery of the harmful effects of the synthetic halocarbon refrigerants on environment there is a renewed interest in natural refrigerants such as carbon dioxide. Lorentzen and Pettersen [1–3] and Riffat et al. [4] through their pioneering studies have proved that the problem of low critical temperature of carbon dioxide can be effectively overcome by operating the system in Carbon dioxide based vapor compression refrigeration system was patented as far back as 1850, and this was followed by several decades of its use, mainly in marine applications. Several problems were faced with the early * Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 91-3222-282904; fax: þ 91- 3222-255303. E-mail address: souvik@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in (S. Bhattacharyya). 0140-7007/$ - see front matter q 2004 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2004.03.006

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