Curcumin Extracted from Turmeric by Hydrothermal Extraction

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Curcumin Extracted from Turmeric by Hydrothermal Extraction ( curcumin-extracted-from-turmeric-by-hydrothermal-extraction )

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E3S Web of Conferences 125, 19001 (2019) ICENIS 2019 temperatures. Since at high temperatures, the viscosity and surface tension of the water decreases so it will drive the mass transfer rate, absorption into matrix particles and increase the selectivity [14-16]. The use of water in subcritical areas as green solvents has attracted the attention of researchers from all over the world. Thermodynamically, water in the liquid phase, below its critical point of 374oC and 22 MPa is referred as subcritical water. Meanwhile, Hot Compressed Water (HCW) specifically refers to subcritical water above its normal boiling point 100oC. HCW or hydrothermal extraction has been successfully used in the extraction process of herbal compounds like cumin [17], Zataria multifora [18], Centela asiactica [19], Thymbra spicata [20], biter melon [21] and oregano[22]. HCW not only functions as a green solvent but can also be used in a selective extraction process. Parameters affect the efficiency of hydrothermal extraction are time and temperature [23]. Thus, this research aims to study the effect of operating condition : temperature (130-150oC), time (10-40 minutes) and solid:liquid ratio (1:10 and 1:12) on the bioactive compounds of turmeric extracted from hydrothermal extraction process. 2 Methodology 2.1. Materials The main material for this research is turmeric, collected from the side products of the herbal medicine industry, “Sido Muncul” Semarang. Nitrogen for supporting hydrothermal extraction and other chemicals used for analysis : acetonitrile, nitrogen, methanol, phosphate buffer, ethanol, distilled water, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and phenolphtalein indicators were bought from CV. Jurus Maju Semarang. The curcumin standard was obtained from Sigma Aldrich. 2.2 Apparatus The main equipment used in this research was the hydrothermal extractor as shown in Figure 1 and spray dryer. columns at the top or the bottom of the page. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/201912519001 Fig. 1. Hydrothermal Extractor based Green Solvent 2.3 Hydrothermal extraction of Curcumin from Curcuma domestica Val Hydrothermal extraction of curcumin was started by weighing 428 g of ground Curcuma domestica Val. It was then loaded into the extraction cell. The distilled water of a certain volume was added into the cell. After the cell was securely covered with a lid of stainless steel, nitrogen gas was then passed through to purge air. The hot compressed water extractions were carried out at a temperature of 130-1500C, and extraction time of 10-40 minutes at a fixed pressure of 2 bar. Once the extraction process was completed, the extraction mixture was transferred into the cooling cell [24]. Samples were taken and been analyzed its curcumin content. 3 Results and Analysis Hydrothermal extraction of turmeric has been done at a temperature of 130-1500C extraction time of 10-40 minutes, and solid:liquid ratio (1:10 and 1:12) at a fixed pressure of 2 bar. The results showed that at a solid liquid ratio of 1:10 and temperature of 130oC, the concentration of curcumin produced in 10 minutes was 17.25% w. The concentration of curcumin produced for 20 minutes is higher (20% w) when compared to 10 minutes of hydrothermal extraction. However, the concentration of curcumin produced in hydrothermal extraction for 30 and 40 minutes were decreased (Figure 2). Furthermore, at a longer time of extraction, curcumin produced at a temperature of 140oC shows a positive trend. Curcumin obtained from hydrothermal extraction carried out at a temperature of 1400C and 40 minutes extraction time was 27.69 %w. 2

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