Wax Motor by Infinity Turbine

Understanding Wax Motors: A Key Component in Modern Appliances

Wax motors are a relatively unsung but crucial component in many modern appliances. Their reliability, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness make them an essential part of our daily lives, even if we're not aware of it. This article delves into what wax motors are, how they work, and where you can typically find them in your household appliances.

What is a Wax Motor?

At its core, a wax motor is a small, electrically-powered device used to create mechanical motion. Unlike traditional motors that rely on electromagnetic forces, wax motors operate using a wax pellet that expands and contracts with temperature changes. This expansion and contraction is used to drive mechanical movements.

The Construction and Working Principle

A typical wax motor consists of an outer casing, a wax pellet, and a moving piston connected to the pellet. When electricity is applied to the motor, it heats the wax. The wax, designed to expand significantly with heat, pushes the piston forward, creating movement. Once the electricity is turned off, the wax cools, contracts, and the piston returns to its original position.

This simple mechanism is both highly reliable and precise, making it an ideal choice for applications where control and accuracy are important.

Applications of Wax Motors

Wax motors are most commonly found in household appliances and can be seen in action in several everyday items:

1. Dishwashers: Wax motors are used to release the detergent door during the washing cycle. The precision of the wax motor ensures that the door opens at the correct time for optimal cleaning.

2. Washing Machines: In washing machines, they are employed to lock and unlock the door, ensuring safety during operation.

3. Refrigerators: Wax motors manage the defrost cycle by controlling the dampers that regulate airflow between the refrigerator and freezer compartments.

4. HVAC Systems: They are also used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems to control the operation of dampers and valves.

Advantages of Wax Motors

The benefits of wax motors are numerous:

- Simplicity and Reliability: With fewer moving parts compared to traditional motors, wax motors are less likely to break down.

- Precision: They offer precise control, crucial in applications like the timed release of detergent in dishwashers.

- Cost-Effectiveness: Wax motors are relatively inexpensive to produce.

- Quiet Operation: They operate quietly, a desirable trait in household appliances.

- Energy Efficiency: These motors require very little electricity to operate.

Future of Wax Motors

As technology advances, the role of wax motors continues to evolve. Innovations in material science may lead to even more efficient and durable wax compositions, expanding their applications. Their inherent simplicity and effectiveness ensure that wax motors will remain a staple in appliance design for years to come.

In conclusion, wax motors might not be the most well-known components, but they play an integral role in the functionality and efficiency of many household appliances. Their unique operating principle sets them apart from traditional motors, making them a key player in the world of mechanical and electrical engineering. Whether you're an engineer, a hobbyist, or just someone curious about how your home appliances work, the humble wax motor is a fascinating subject worth exploring.

Wax motor Patent WO1997049914A1

Crafting Your Own Wax Motor: Piston Selection

The idea of building a wax motor, a simple yet ingenious device, is an intriguing project for DIY enthusiasts, hobbyists, and those with a penchant for mechanical engineering. A frequently asked question in this realm is, Can I make a wax motor using any piston? This article explores the feasibility of this idea, diving into the principles of wax motor design and the compatibility of various pistons with this unique mechanism.

Understanding Wax Motors

Before diving into the specifics of piston compatibility, it's essential to understand what a wax motor is and how it operates. A wax motor is a compact, electrically powered device that uses the expansion and contraction of wax to create mechanical movement. It typically consists of a wax pellet, a heating element, and a piston.

The Mechanics of a Wax Motor

The core principle of a wax motor is straightforward:

1. Heating: When electricity is applied, the heating element warms the wax pellet.

2. Expansion: The wax expands significantly upon heating, exerting pressure.

3. Movement: This pressure pushes the piston, creating motion.

4. Cooling and Contraction: When the power is off, the wax cools, contracts, and the piston returns to its initial position.

Can Any Piston Be Used?

The short answer is: It depends. Several factors determine the compatibility of a piston with a wax motor:

Size and Fit

- Dimensional Compatibility: The piston must fit perfectly within the wax motor's housing. Too loose, and the force exerted by the expanding wax will be ineffective. Too tight, and the piston might jam or cause excessive wear.

- Stroke Length: The piston's stroke length must match the expansion range of the wax. If the piston's travel distance is too short or too long, the motor won't function effectively.

Material Considerations

- Thermal Conductivity: The piston material should have suitable thermal properties. Materials that conduct heat too quickly might dissipate the heat before the wax can fully expand.

- Durability: The material should withstand repeated thermal expansion and contraction without deforming or breaking.

Design and Function

- Sealing: An effective seal is necessary to ensure that the force exerted by the wax is translated into piston movement and not lost.

- Weight: Heavier pistons may require more force to move, which means the wax and heating element need to be appropriately calibrated.

DIY Wax Motor: Steps and Tips

If you're considering building your own wax motor, here are some steps and tips:

1. Select the Right Wax: Choose a wax with a suitable expansion rate and melting point.

2. Design the Housing: Ensure the housing accommodates the piston snugly and allows for expansion.

3. Choose and Fit the Piston: Based on the above considerations, select a piston that fits well with your design.

4. Incorporate a Heating Element: Position a heating element to effectively warm the wax.

5. Testing and Calibration: Test your wax motor and calibrate the heating element and wax quantity for optimal performance.


While it's theoretically possible to use various pistons to create a wax motor, the success of the endeavor depends significantly on the compatibility of the piston with the specific requirements of the wax motor mechanism. Attention to detail in design, material selection, and testing is key. For those interested in mechanical projects, building a wax motor can be a rewarding and educational experience, offering insight into a unique type of motion mechanism. Whether you're a seasoned tinkerer or a curious novice, the journey of creating your own wax motor promises both challenges and the thrill of innovation.

Selecting the Optimal Wax for Your Wax Motor: Is Paraffin a Viable Choice

When it comes to building or understanding wax motors, one of the critical components is the wax itself. The type of wax used can significantly impact the performance and efficiency of the motor. This article delves into the various types of waxes suitable for wax motors and addresses a common question: Can paraffin wax be used in this context?

The Role of Wax in Wax Motors

Wax motors rely on the thermal expansion properties of wax to generate mechanical movement. When heated, the wax expands and pushes a piston, which in turn creates motion. Once the heating stops, the wax contracts, and the piston returns to its original position. Therefore, the choice of wax is pivotal in determining the motor's operational efficiency and reliability.

Characteristics of Ideal Wax for Wax Motors

The best waxes for wax motors should have:

1. High Expansion Rate: The more a wax expands when heated, the more force it can exert.

2. Consistent Performance: The wax should consistently expand and contract over many cycles without degrading.

3. Appropriate Melting Point: The wax should have a melting point that suits the operating temperature range of the device.

4. Low Cost and Availability: Ideally, the wax should be affordable and readily available.

Types of Waxes for Wax Motors

Paraffin Wax

- Properties: Paraffin wax is a common, inexpensive wax with a moderate expansion rate and a wide range of melting points.

- Suitability: It's suitable for basic wax motor applications where extreme forces or temperatures are not involved.

- Limitations: Its expansion rate and durability under continuous heating and cooling cycles may not match more specialized waxes.

Microcrystalline Wax

- Properties: Microcrystalline wax, derived from petroleum, has a finer crystalline structure compared to paraffin.

- Advantages: This wax offers better elasticity and a higher expansion rate, making it suitable for more demanding applications.

- Considerations: It is generally more expensive than paraffin wax.


- Properties: Beeswax is a natural wax known for its relatively high expansion rate.

- Usage: It can be used in wax motors, especially in applications where a natural wax is preferred.

- Drawbacks: The cost and variability of beeswax can be a concern for some applications.

Specialty Waxes

- Development: There are specially formulated waxes developed specifically for wax motors, offering optimized expansion rates and durability.

- Application: These are ideal for high-performance or industrial-grade wax motors.

Can Paraffin Wax Be Used?

Yes, paraffin wax can be used in wax motors, especially for basic, low-stress applications. Its advantages include:

- Availability: Paraffin wax is widely available and affordable.

- Ease of Use: It's easy to handle and mold into the required shape.

- Versatility: Paraffin wax comes in various grades, allowing for some customization based on the melting point.

However, for more demanding applications, considering other types of waxes or specialty blends might be beneficial to ensure optimal performance and longevity.


The choice of wax in a wax motor is a crucial factor that determines the motor's efficiency and lifespan. While paraffin wax is a viable option for simple or low-demand applications, exploring other types of waxes like microcrystalline, beeswax, or specially formulated blends can yield better results in more rigorous settings. Understanding the properties and limitations of each type of wax will enable designers and hobbyists to make informed decisions, ensuring the functionality and reliability of their wax motors. Whether you're experimenting with a DIY project or designing a commercial product, selecting the right wax is a step that can significantly influence the success of your wax motor.

Harnessing Power with Wax Motors: A Guide to Simple Power Generation

In an age where sustainable and innovative energy solutions are increasingly sought after, the use of wax motors for simple power generation presents an intriguing possibility. This article explores how a wax motor, in conjunction with a piston, can be employed to generate power in a straightforward yet effective manner.

Understanding the Wax Motor-Piston Setup

A wax motor operates on the principle of thermal expansion and contraction of wax. When heated, the wax expands, driving a piston, which then returns to its original position as the wax cools and contracts. This back-and-forth motion of the piston can be harnessed to generate mechanical power, which can then be converted into electrical power.

Components of the System

1. Wax Motor: Consists of a wax pellet that expands when heated.

2. Piston: Connected to the wax motor, it moves in response to the wax's expansion and contraction.

3. Generator: Converts mechanical movement into electrical energy.

4. Heating and Cooling System: Controls the temperature of the wax.

Simple Power Generation Method

Step-by-Step Process

1. Heat Application: The wax motor is heated, either through electrical resistive heating or alternative heat sources like solar power.

2. Expansion and Movement: The expanding wax pushes the piston, creating a linear motion.

3. Mechanical to Electrical Conversion: This linear motion is transferred to a generator, typically through a crankshaft or similar mechanism, converting it into rotational motion needed for power generation.

4. Cooling Phase: The wax is then cooled, causing it to contract and pull the piston back to its starting position.

5. Cycle Repetition: The cycle of heating and cooling is repeated, maintaining the motion.

Potential Power Generation Applications

- Small-scale Electricity Production: Suitable for low-power applications, such as charging batteries or powering small electronic devices.

- Educational Projects: Demonstrating basic principles of thermodynamics and mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion.

- Remote or Off-grid Applications: Where traditional power sources are unavailable, and minimal power is required.

Advantages and Limitations


1. Sustainability: If the heat source is renewable, like solar energy, the system can be quite sustainable.

2. Simplicity: The mechanism is relatively straightforward, with few moving parts and low maintenance requirements.

3. Quiet Operation: Unlike many mechanical power generators, a wax motor system operates quietly.


1. Low Power Output: The amount of power generated is relatively small, limiting the scope of its applications.

2. Heat Source Dependency: The efficiency of the system heavily depends on the consistency and availability of a heat source.

3. Response Time: The thermal response time of wax can limit the speed and efficiency of the power generation cycle.


The concept of using a wax motor and piston for simple power generation is a testament to the potential of innovative, sustainable energy solutions. While its applications may be limited by the relatively low power output, this setup offers a unique approach to power generation, especially in situations where minimal, sustainable power is required. As technology progresses, there may be room for enhancements in materials and design, potentially increasing the efficiency and applicability of wax motor-based power generation systems. Whether for educational purposes, off-grid power solutions, or sustainable project development, this method serves as an intriguing example of how traditional concepts can be repurposed for modern energy challenges.

Exploring the Viability of Wax Motors as Wax Turbines

In the realm of mechanical engineering and renewable energy, the concept of using a wax motor as a turbine, or a wax turbine, presents an intriguing idea. This article delves into the feasibility of this concept, examining the principles of wax motors and turbines, and assessing whether a wax motor can effectively function as a turbine.

Understanding Wax Motors and Turbines

Before diving into the feasibility, it's essential to understand the basic mechanisms of both wax motors and turbines.

Wax Motor Mechanics

A wax motor operates on the principle of thermal expansion. It consists of a wax pellet that expands significantly when heated. This expansion drives a piston or actuator, which then returns to its original position as the wax cools and contracts. The key aspect of a wax motor is the linear motion generated by the expansion and contraction of the wax.

Turbine Mechanics

A turbine, on the other hand, is a device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The most common types of turbines are found in wind, water, and steam power generation. These turbines convert the kinetic energy of moving fluids (air, water, steam) into rotational energy, which drives a generator to produce electricity.

Can a Wax Motor Function as a Turbine?

To assess if a wax motor can be used as a turbine, we need to consider the fundamental differences in their mechanisms:

1. Type of Motion: Wax motors produce linear motion, whereas turbines rely on rotational motion. Converting linear motion into rotational motion would require additional mechanical components, which could complicate the system and reduce its efficiency.

2. Energy Source and Output: Wax motors derive their energy from thermal expansion, typically from heat sources like electrical resistive heating or solar power. Turbines, however, harness kinetic energy from fluid flows. The energy output of a wax motor is also considerably lower than that of conventional turbines.

3. Efficiency and Scale: For a turbine to be effective, especially in power generation, it needs to operate efficiently at a scale that a wax motor is unlikely to achieve due to its design limitations and lower energy output.

4. Application Suitability: Wax motors are more suited for applications requiring controlled, low-force, linear movements, such as in appliance actuators or small-scale mechanical systems. Turbines, conversely, are designed for continuous, high-energy, rotational motion.

Potential Innovative Uses

While a traditional wax motor may not be suitable as a turbine in conventional energy generation, there could be innovative applications for its unique mechanism. For instance, in small-scale, low-power generation projects where linear motion is preferable, or in educational settings where demonstrating basic principles of thermodynamics and mechanical energy is the goal.


In conclusion, while the idea of using a wax motor as a turbine – a wax turbine – is an innovative one, the fundamental differences in their design and operation make it impractical in traditional turbine applications. However, this does not diminish the potential of wax motors in their right domain. Instead, it highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate mechanism for each specific application. The exploration of such ideas is crucial in pushing the boundaries of technology and finding novel solutions to engineering challenges. The wax motor, with its unique thermal expansion-based mechanism, continues to be a valuable component in its specialized applications, even if it may not be suitable as a turbine alternative.

Harnessing Induction Heating with Wax Motors: A Synergistic Approach

The innovative concept of utilizing wax motors not only as mechanical actuators but also as a means to generate induction heating for other wax motors opens a fascinating avenue in the field of mechanical and electrical engineering. This article delves into the feasibility and potential of using wax motors in conjunction with induction heating, either through magnets or friction, to create a self-sustaining or interconnected system of wax motors.

The Principle Behind Wax Motors and Induction Heating

To explore this idea, we first need to understand the separate mechanisms of wax motors and induction heating.

Wax Motors: A Brief Overview

A wax motor operates on the principle of thermal expansion. It consists of a wax pellet that expands significantly when heated, driving a piston or actuator, and then contracts upon cooling. The primary function of wax motors is to convert thermal energy into linear mechanical motion.

Induction Heating: Basics

Induction heating is a process of heating electrically conductive materials (like metals) using electromagnetic induction. When an alternating current flows through a coil, it produces a fluctuating magnetic field. This field induces eddy currents in nearby conductive materials, generating heat due to the material's electrical resistance.

Conceptualizing the Integration

Using Wax Motors to Generate Induction Heating

1. Magnetic Approach: In this method, the motion of the piston in a wax motor could be used to mechanically drive a magnetic assembly (such as a set of permanent magnets or an electromagnet) near a conductive material, inducing eddy currents and hence, heat.

2. Frictional Approach: Alternatively, the linear motion of the piston could be utilized to create friction against a conductive material, generating heat through direct physical contact.

Heating Other Wax Motors

Once heat is generated via induction or friction, it could be directed to heat the wax in other wax motors. This creates a fascinating scenario where one wax motor could potentially initiate or enhance the operation of another, creating a chain of activation or a self-sustaining system.

Evaluating the Feasibility and Challenges

Technical Considerations

- Efficiency of Heat Transfer: The effectiveness of transferring heat from the induction heating process to other wax motors is crucial. This would require efficient thermal conductivity and minimal heat loss.

- Mechanical to Electrical Energy Conversion: If using a magnetic approach, converting the linear motion of the piston into a form suitable for generating a fluctuating magnetic field would be a key challenge.

- Control and Regulation: Managing the temperature and timing to synchronize the operation of multiple wax motors would require precise control mechanisms.

Potential Applications and Benefits

- Self-Sustaining Systems: Such a setup could find use in creating systems where the activation of one wax motor leads to the sequential activation of others, potentially reducing the need for external power sources.

- Educational Demonstrations: This concept could serve as an excellent educational tool to demonstrate principles of thermodynamics, electromagnetism, and mechanical engineering.


- Complexity and Cost: Integrating induction heating with wax motors adds complexity and potentially increases the cost, which might limit practical applications.

- Scale Limitations: The relatively small scale of heat and motion generated by wax motors might limit the effectiveness of this system in larger applications.


While the concept of using wax motors to generate induction heating, either through magnets or friction, to heat up other wax motors is theoretically intriguing, practical implementation poses several challenges. The efficiency of heat transfer, the complexity of mechanical to electrical energy conversion, and the control mechanisms required make this a sophisticated endeavor. However, as an academic exercise or a proof-of-concept project, this idea has merit and could inspire innovative approaches in the field of renewable energy and sustainable systems. As technology advances, exploring such novel ideas is crucial for pushing the boundaries of what's possible, leading to breakthroughs in energy efficiency and mechanical design.

Using Wax as a Capacitor and Static Energy Storage Device

In the pursuit of innovative and sustainable energy storage solutions, the use of unconventional materials has gained interest. One such material is wax, commonly known for its applications in candles and coatings. This article explores the potential of wax as a capacitor and static energy storage device, delving into its feasibility, challenges, and possible applications.

Wax in the Realm of Capacitors

How Capacitors Work

Capacitors are electronic components that store and release electrical energy. They consist of two conductive plates separated by an insulating material known as a dielectric. When voltage is applied, an electric field is created in the dielectric, storing energy electrostatically.

Wax as a Dielectric Material

Wax, an excellent electrical insulator, can be used as a dielectric material in capacitors. The primary factors determining its suitability include:

- Dielectric Strength: Wax has a reasonable dielectric strength, meaning it can withstand electric fields without breaking down, making it suitable for low-voltage applications.

- Dielectric Constant: The dielectric constant of wax is modest compared to modern dielectric materials, resulting in lower capacitance values.

- Thermal Properties: Wax's sensitivity to temperature changes and its low melting point limit its use to environments where temperature is controlled.

Design Considerations

In designing a wax-based capacitor, ensuring an even distribution of wax between conductive plates and maintaining a constant temperature is crucial. These capacitors might not compete with modern capacitors in terms of efficiency and size but can be useful in specific low-power applications.

Wax as a Static Energy Storage Device

Static energy storage in wax is fundamentally different from its role in capacitors. It involves storing energy in the form of a static electric charge, typically achieved through friction.

Mechanism of Static Energy Storage

- Charging by Friction: When wax is rubbed with materials like wool or fur, it can gain or lose electrons, leading to a static charge. This charge can be retained for a period, essentially storing energy.

- Discharge: The static charge can be discharged when the wax comes into contact with a conductive material, releasing the stored energy.

Applications and Limitations

The practical use of wax as a static energy storage device is quite limited. It could serve educational purposes or in specific niche applications where temporary storage of static electricity is required. However, the amount of energy stored and the duration for which it can be retained are relatively modest.

Challenges and Future Perspectives

Efficiency and Stability

The efficiency of wax capacitors and their static energy storage capabilities are not on par with modern materials. Additionally, the physical stability of wax under varying temperatures poses a significant challenge.

Potential for Innovation

The concept of using wax in these roles encourages exploration into other unconventional materials for energy storage. Blending wax with other materials to enhance its properties or developing composites could open new avenues for research.


While wax presents an intriguing option for use in capacitors and as a static energy storage device, its practical applications are limited by its physical and electrical properties. However, the exploration of wax in these roles underscores the importance of innovation in the field of energy storage. As we continue to seek sustainable and efficient solutions, even unconventional materials like wax offer valuable insights and learning opportunities.

Using Wax as a Simultaneous Motor and Capacitor: A Dual-Function Approach

In the innovative landscape of modern engineering, the idea of multi-functional materials has gained significant interest. Among these, wax, a material typically associated with everyday uses like candles and polishes, has emerged as a potential candidate for dual functionality in the realms of electromechanical systems. This article explores the intriguing concept of using wax as both a motor and a capacitor, delving into its feasibility, the science behind it, and the potential implications of such a dual-function approach.

Wax in Electromechanical Systems

Wax as a Motor

The concept of a wax motor is based on the principle of thermal expansion. A wax motor typically consists of a wax pellet that expands significantly when heated. This expansion can drive a piston or actuator, converting thermal energy into mechanical motion. The simplicity and reliability of wax motors have made them popular in various applications, from household appliances to industrial systems.

Wax as a Capacitor

Capacitors are devices that store electrical energy in an electric field. In a wax-based capacitor, wax acts as the dielectric material between two conductive plates. While wax is not as efficient as modern dielectric materials in terms of energy density, it offers reasonable dielectric strength and stability for low-voltage applications.

The Dual-Functionality Concept

The idea of using wax as both a motor and a capacitor involves integrating these two functionalities into a single system. Here’s how this could work:

1. As a Motor: When electrical energy is supplied, the wax heats up and expands, triggering mechanical motion.

2. As a Capacitor: The same wax, when used with conductive plates, can store electrical energy. This energy can be used for various purposes, including the heating of the wax to activate the motor function.

Challenges and Potential Solutions

1. Heat Management: The dual use of wax as a motor and capacitor requires careful heat management to ensure efficient operation and prevent melting or degradation of the wax.

2. Material Properties: The physical and electrical properties of wax need to be optimized for it to effectively serve both as a motor and capacitor. This might involve using wax blends or composites.

3. Design Complexity: Integrating two distinct functionalities into a single material system presents significant design challenges, requiring innovative engineering solutions.

Applications and Implications

Niche Applications

The use of wax as a simultaneous motor and capacitor could find applications in small-scale, low-power devices where space is a constraint, and the dual functionality offers added value.

Educational and Experimental Use

Such a system could serve as an excellent educational tool to demonstrate principles of thermodynamics, electromagnetism, and energy conversion.

Future Perspectives

Material Development

Further research into developing specialized wax blends or composites that can better withstand the dual demands of acting as a motor and capacitor is crucial.

Technological Integration

Integrating this concept into practical applications requires advancements in microfabrication and control systems to manage and optimize the dual functionality.


The concept of using wax as both a motor and a capacitor represents an innovative approach in material science and electromechanical system design. While there are significant challenges to be addressed, the potential for creating compact, multi-functional devices is an exciting prospect. This exploration pushes the boundaries of conventional material use and opens up possibilities for future innovations in energy-efficient and space-saving device design.

TEL: 1-608-238-6001 Email: greg@infinityturbine.com

Special this month: ORC and ROT Turbine Plans are $10,000 Each Buy our advanced turbine plans starting at $10,000 some include licensing fees for unlimited manufacturing... More Info

Grid-Scale Saltwater Battery by Salgenx 3000 kWh and More The new competitor for the Tesla Megapack. Now discovering Vermiculate as possible cathode material. Mfg for less than $100/kWh. 3000 kWh Grid Scale Battery $600000 More Info

Grid-Scale Saltwater Battery Technology Report Learn how to build a sample saltwater battery cell, the history and technology of the battery, and recent research done by labs in the USA. More Info

Capstone Turbine Engine Parts APP by Global Energy Global Energy has developed an App for microturbine parts where you can buy OEM direct to save money on parts purchases especially for the C200... for IOS, Mac/Windows More Info

Radial Outflow Turbine Kit Infinity Turbine is now offering a ROT Radial Outflow Turbine for customer assembly flat pack kit More Info

CONTACT TEL: 608-238-6001 Email: greg@infinityturbine.com (Standard Web Page) | PDF | IG | X.com